Home / Sports Psychology Research Topics / There you’ve got it: a course that is short the technology that made the Irishman John Robert Gregg A us tycoon in the 1st 1 / 2 of the twentieth Century.

There you’ve got it: a course that is short the technology that made the Irishman John Robert Gregg A us tycoon in the 1st 1 / 2 of the twentieth Century.

Some letters, like “c” and “q”, are entirely missing from Gregg; there’s absolutely no sound for “c” besides those already represented by “k” and “s”. On the other hand, you can find typical phonemes in English—“sh”, “th”, “ch”—that need a mix of letters within the Roman alphabet, but can each be written having a solitary page in Gregg. “Though,” which, in longhand, requires six symbols that are complex along with seven quick ligatures, is rendered with two brief shots in Gregg: “th-o.” But Gregg goes even more, eliding unstressed vowels and unvoiced consonants to get at the phonetic nugget of this word: “bed” is written as “b-d”; “act” as “a-k”; “done” as “d-n”. This economy of spelling saves another ten percent of this time that is note-taker’s.

However the impact that is biggest from Gregg shorthand originates from its systematic method of abbreviation. As an example, nearly every page in Gregg, published by itself, represents a word that is common. Most are employed for a few different terms, depending on the context. Our Gregg friend “b” can suggest “be”, “by”, or “but”. The Gregg letter “r” can suggest “are”, “our”, or “hour.” The Gregg letter “t” can indicate “it” or “at.” In this manner, almost 100 of the very most common terms in English may be rendered in a solitary swing. Likewise, most typical English terms have actually a spelling that is abbreviated of or two shots. The elegant Gregg form of “b-r,” for example, is brief for “bring” and it is printed in an instantaneous. Right right Here it really is once more:

And, since 60 per cent of talked English is composed of about 600 of those typical terms, brief forms play a role that is huge accelerating Gregg. “Brief type” is obviously a technical term in Gregg. Anybody can discover the Gregg alphabet in a day and most likely increase their composing speed; but in order to become certainly fast—like the rest of the couple of Gregg-powered court reporters into the federal courts who defeat testimony at a lot more than 200 terms per minute—you need certainly to memorize dozens or a huge selection of typical abbreviations.

That sounds difficult as you needed them until you remember that your head is chock-a-block with common English abbreviations, most of which you learned organically. Gregg isn’t any various. Together with Gregg variations are in minimum more systematic, so that they accrue quickly.

However the form that is brief a lot more than a easy abbreviation, it is the distillation associated with fundamental premise of shorthand: never ever write a lot more than is essential to comprehend it later on. By using this concept, huge number of long, Latinate words are reduced to three or four letters in Gregg: “a-b-a-nd” for “abandon,” “h-u-nd” for hundred, “n-a-sh” for “nation.” Brief types were specially essential into the polysyllabic lexicons of medicine and law—fields that, not coincidentally, had been also epicenters of shorthand in Gregg’s heyday.

One particularly fertile method of abbreviation in Gregg could be the usage of solitary letters as stand-ins for common prefixes or suffixes, according to whether they’re written before or following the terms they modify. As prefixes, these letters may be either attached with or detached through the term. For instance, a detached “g,” written right before and above a word represents “grand,” as in “grandmother,” but additionally such as “grandiloquent,” and on occasion even “granular” (and this can be written “g” above “l-r.”)

Having said that, an attached “k” at the start of a term could be the prefixes “con,” “com,” or “count;” therefore “k-g” is pronounced “cong,” and it is the brief kind for Congress. But a detached “k” written above a term may be the prefix “counter” or “contra”; therefore “k” written more than a “b”, as an example, is read “contrib” and it is the quick kind for “contribute” or “contribution.”

It’s much equivalent with suffixes. A“g that is detached at the finish of a word means “gram,” as with “program.” A“k that is detached is short for “ical,” like in “medical.” And a detached “o” takes the area of “ology,” as in “biology.”

These types may also be added together to produce longer terms.

“Biological” is written “b-i” accompanied by a detached “o-k.” In this manner, very very long, complex terms are paid down to 2 or 3 fast flicks regarding the pen, yet stay entirely legible to anybody who understands the Gregg system. Combined, the forms that are brief the abbreviation concept take into account approximately half of Gregg’s advantage over longhand. Not just will be the letters simple and simply joined up with, you will find less of these to publish.

The element that is final makes Gregg so blazingly fast is just a technique called “phrasing.” Like this, numerous expressions that are common be dashed down in some shots without ever raising the pen through the web web page. Each of and this can be written individually with an individual letter: “i,” written with a quick, right, upward swing that slopes to your right, represents “it;” “l,” an extended, horizontal, upward-facing curve, represents “will;” and, as we’ve seen, “b,” the long, downward curving swing, represents “be. as an example, the expression “it will be” consists of three common words” Phrasing enables you to join all three of those letters within one elegant, continuous form—“i-l-b”—that takes significantly less than a quarter-second to publish.

Here is “it will likely be” in the very first line, with “I have actually been” below it:

And you will find literally 1000s of these expressions in Gregg shorthand. Most of all, unlike quick kinds, they don’t require much memorization; they’re the item of the few easy guidelines.

By the time he passed away, in 1949, Gregg presided over an empire that reached from his head office on Fifth Avenue in Manhattan into nearly every college, business and courthouse in the united kingdom. While he had been fundamentally a publishing magnate—Gregg Publishing put away hundreds of textbooks, dictionaries, research guides, publications, and shorthand variations of traditional literature—John Robert Gregg additionally oversaw a nationwide infrastructure of official official official certification agencies, company schools, and testing facilities that endorsed the relevant skills of most shorthand that is professional. You needed a certificate from Gregg saying you qualified at 150 words per minute if you wanted to be an executive secretary. You had to demonstrate you could write an astonishing 225 words per minute with better than 98 percent accuracy if you wanted to be a court reporter. Entirely, thousands of people passed away through Gregg training plus the Gregg official official certification system.

For pretty much a hundred years, Gregg ended up being a part that is essential of culture. Since recently as the 1970s, virtually every school that is high the nation taught Gregg. Definitely, every company school & most universities offered Gregg-certified shorthand courses. But Gregg’s decline started whenever McGraw-Hill purchased Gregg Publishing, right after John Robert Gregg’s death. The rise of stenography devices within the 1940s and psychology research topics 1950s steadily drove shorthand from the courtroom (though you may still find a a small number of “pen article writers” when you look at the federal court system). The Dictaphone along with other recording products made verbatim note using less much less essential in any office. Plus some individuals state improvements in women’s rights additionally played a task within the decline of Gregg. The smartest, most talented women often ended up as secretaries or executive assistants and became gifted shorthand practitioners in a time when they were denied careers in fields like the law or medicine. Those left behind never became quite as fast or skilled at the complexities of Gregg in the 1960s and 1970s, as these women began to move on to better opportunities.

The genuine death knell for Gregg, though, had been the arrival associated with laptop or computer within the 1980s. Also high-level professionals no much much longer dictated letters with their secretaries; they published them by themselves to their desktop computers. Organizations which used to own ratings of skilled shorthand authors eliminated their steno swimming pools totally. Today, I’m maybe not conscious of any senior high school that teaches Gregg. It is extremely difficult to get it taught in colleges—with two exceptions in Kingsborough and Queensborough community universities in new york, where Gregg article writers are nevertheless prized by some glove that is white organizations. The book that is only posted because of the Gregg Division of McGraw-Hill may be the Gregg handbook, a workplace guide which has no reference to shorthand.

But, as being a technology for writing fast with pen and paper—still a skill that is fundamental reporters like me—Gregg shorthand has not been surpassed. Nowadays, you may need to purchase a vintage Gregg manual on e-Bay and show your self, but even although you just discover the essentials, Gregg will likely increase your note speed that is taking. A minute or more with practice and daily use, it’s not uncommon to reach speeds of 100 words. And, paradoxically, shorthand is the perfect complement to the twenty-first Century technology associated with smartpen.

In the end, shorthand—at minimum my shorthand—isn’t foolproof. Despite the fact that, for quick stretches, i will compose 120 terms each minute, the American that is average now at significantly more than 150 terms a moment, so one thing is inevitably lost within the interpretation. With my trusty Sky smartpen, however, we don’t need to worry. More often than not, once I circumvent to writing the storyline, I’m able to depend on my handwritten records for quick quotes and back ground information. However when we need a lengthier, verbatim estimate, I’m able to make use of my records as some sort of index to obtain the right area of the meeting, and touch there with my pen to listen to the playback. Forget about associated with the dance that is forward/reverse an electronic recorder when it is time for you to transcribe. It is an almost perfect system.

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